Như chúng ta đã biết, đầu tư chính là bỏ vốn vào một lĩnh vực nào đó trong thời gian dài và theo nhiều chu kỳ nhằm đạt được lợi nhuận, gọi chung hiệu quả đầu tư là gì. 

Đã đầu tư thì bất cứ một doanh nghiệp nào cũng sẽ mong thu về lợi ích. Vậy chi tiết  về hiệu quả đầu tư là gì? Có thể phân chia các loại hiệu quả hay không? Bài viết này sẽ giúp bạn tìm hiểu những điều đó.

Hiệu quả đầu tư là gì?

Hiệu quả đầu tư là khái niệm chỉ tất cả những lợi ích mà nhà kinh doanh đạt được khi bỏ vốn ra để đầu tư. Lợi ích bao gồm cả kinh tế xã hội, lợi ích của người sử dụng và lợi ích của chủ đầu tư.

Hiệu quả đầu tư là gì? Có những loại hiệu quả đầu tư nào?
Các doanh nghiệp đầu tư để mang về lợi ích

Trong đó hiệu quả đầu tư được thể hiện ở nhiều mặt khác nhau: Kinh tế, chính trị, môi trường, xã hội… Các mặt có thể đo lường được tuy nhiên cũng có thể không xác định được cụ thể số lượng. Vì vậy phải xét đến tất cả các yếu tố của nền kinh tế quốc dân, mọi mặt của xã hội khi nói đến hiệu quả đầu tư.

Có những loại hiệu quả đầu tư nào?

Có thể chia thành hai loại hiệu quả đầu tư: Hiệu quả về mặt định tính và hiệu quả về mặt định lượng

Hiệu quả về mặt định tính

Đây là loại hệ quả chỉ rõ nó thuộc hiệu quả gì và có tính chất hiệu quả như thế nào. 

Xét theo tính chất hiệu quả thì hiệu quả định tính bao gồm:

  • Hiệu quả về kinh tế: Là lợi ích kinh tế mà nhà đầu tư đạt lợi nhuận tạo ra, các khoản mà dự án mang lại để nộp ngân sách…
  • Hiệu quả về môi trường và xã hội: các lợi ích xã hội tăng lên, đời sống vật chất cải thiện, bảo vệ môi trường, phát triển giáo dục…
  • Hiệu quả kỹ thuật: Trình độ kỹ thuật cao hơn trước
  • Hiệu quả an ninh quốc phòng
Hiệu quả đầu tư là gì? Có những loại hiệu quả đầu tư nào?
Nhiều doanh nghiệp xem trọng hiệu quả kỹ thuật bởi giá trị lâu dài

Xét theo quan điểm lợi ích:

  • Hiệu quả quan điểm lợi ích của các cơ sở doanh nghiệp
  • Hiệu quả quan điểm lợi ích của cả đất nước

Xét theo mức độ:

  • Hiệu quả thu được từ các dự án một cách trực tiếp
  • Hiệu quả thu được ngoài các dự án ( gián tiếp).
  • Theo thời gian, hiệu quả có thể chia ra hai loại: 
  • Hiệu quả ngắn hạn, trước mắt
  • Hiệu quả dài hạn, lâu dài

Theo phạm vi ảnh hưởng: 

  • Hiệu quả bộ phận, cục bộ
  • Hiệu quả tổng thể, toàn cục

Hiệu quả đầu tư về mặt định lượng (Độ lớn của hiệu quả)

Theo phương pháp tính toán sẽ chia thành:

  • Hiệu quả tuyệt đối (Lợi nhuận, đóng góp cho ngân sách Nhà nước).
  • Hiệu quả tương đối (Mức doanh lợi của một đồng vốn, suất thu lợi nội tại).
Hiệu quả đầu tư là gì? Có những loại hiệu quả đầu tư nào?
Lợi nhuận thể hiện ở tổng thu mang về

Theo thời gian tính toán chia thành:

  • Hiệu quả tính toán cho một năm.
  • Hiệu quả tính toán cho nhiều năm (toàn bộ dự án)

Theo mức độ đạt yêu cầu của hiệu quả bao gồm:

  • Hiệu quả đạt mức độ yêu cầu, tức là hiệu quả đạt được bằng trị số hiệu quả định mức (gọi là ngưỡng hiệu quả). Trường hợp nên đầu tư vào dự án và được coi là đáng giá
  • Hiệu quả chưa đạt mức độ yêu cầu, tức đạt nhỏ hơn trị số yêu cầu định mức (ngưỡng hiệu quả). Trường hợp này không nên đầu tư vào dự án.

>> Xem thêm: Làm thế nào để đạt hiệu quả sản xuất trong kinh doanh?

Trong kinh tế thị trường, việc nắm bắt được hiệu quả đầu tư là gì sẽ vô cùng quan trọng. Không những giúp các doanh nghiệp mở rộng thị trường mà còn nâng cao tính cạnh tranh, khai thác tối đa hiệu quả của các nguồn lực.

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